Food roasted or cooked in front of a fire on a spit or skewer
Cooking terms a - z. Food glossary of recipe terms and words used in cookery . Basic cooking terms, baking terms, food preparation terms. Culinary terms list.
after the style of
Meat glaze or jelly
applied to fish – usually trout – cooked in a court bouillon. The fish takes a blue appearance.
Baked in the oven.
A topping of breadcrumbs, usually for food in a shallow ovenproof dish
Meat served in its own gravy.
A pan of hot water in which a saucepan is stood to keep its contents nearly boiling
The process of covering the breast of poultry or game with strips of streaky bacon, tied in position, to add flavour and juciness and stop the meat from drying out. The bacon is removed about 10 minutes before serving. The flesh can then then be basted to brown if desired.
To pour hot fat over food, using a long-handled spoon, whilst baking or roasting
Photo credit: Ilovebutter
To add sufficient liquid such as eggs, milk or water, to make a mixture hold together.
To cover food with cold water and bring it to boiling point. The water should then be strained off.
A white stew, due to the white or pale-coloured flesh and sauce.
Cooking by immersion in boiling or simmering liquid for a given time.
A moulded ice cream often filled with a richer ice cream combined with nuts, fruit, etc.
Bouchees or Bouchées are small patties of pastry such as vol-au-vents. Literally ‘a mouthful’.
Fresh boiled meat.
Beef, veal or chicken stock
Herb mixture, usually parsley, marjoram, thyme, rosemary and bay leaves tied in a bunch and wrapped in muslin, or store bought in a ‘tea bag’ style wrapping. Used for flavouring soups and stews during cooking time, and removed before serving.
Acooking method which combines roasting or frying and stewing, and which is excellent for cheaper cuts of meat
Fried or toasted bread cut into small fancy shapes or rounds, to serve Hors d’oeuvres or other savouries on
Small Italian sausages
Instructions to clarify can include, butter, other fats or soups, all 3 of which are explained here:
To clarify butter-
Put butter in a small saucepan and warm over a very low heat until froth rises then sinks, solidified, to the bottom. Strain the clear liquid butter through a thin cloth and it is ready to use. This removes any impurities that would normally burn in cooking and appear as black spots.
To clarify other fats-
Bring to the boil with water, leave to cool, then remove fat and sediment.
To clarify soup-
When cold put 2 egg whites in a saucepan, beat lightly but not to a froth, add crushed egg shells and stock. Bring very slowly to the boil, stirring and beating continuously. All scum rises to the surface on the boil. Contine for 15 minutes without stirring. Remove from heat and stir soup into a basin through a jelly bag.
Clear meat soup.
Cutlets or chops.
A highly seasoned stock in which to cook fish
Mashed potatoes or minced poultry, meat or fish, bound with a sauce, shaped, then dipped in egg and breadcrumbs and fried or baked.
Large pieces of fried bread on which savoury snacks are served
Smal diced pieces of bread, fried and used as a garnish, mostly for soups
kitchen, or cookery
Minced meat starter shaped in a mould, the name of such a mould, also term used for small pastries.
A stew of meat or poultry
Devilled, or with hot seasoning
Light dishes served between courses
Forcemeat or stuffing
A mixture of finely chopped herbs
An open fruit tart, or a pastry or sponge case
A food product made from the liver of specially fattened duck or geese
To fold ingredients in means to gently stir in an ingredient without allowing the air to escape from the mixture. Cut downwards through the mixture with a spoon, run the spoon across the bottom of the mixing bowl, then up again so that part of the surface is folded under.
A savoury stuffing for fish, meat or poultry
A white stew of chicken or veal
A rapid method of cooking carried out in either shallow or deep fat.
There are several methods of frying:
- Shallow Frying – This is the cooking of food in just enough fat on the base of the frying pan. The amount of fat needed depends on the type of food being fried. Suitable for cooking fish, steak, eggs, pancakes, etc. Fresh fat is required for each different food.
- Dry Frying – This is the shallow frying of bacon, pork chops etc. which don’t require any extra fat.
- Deep Frying – This is the cooking of food (with or without batter), by complete immersion in hot fat. The heat immediately seals the outside of the food so that no flavour enters the fat. Drain fried food thoroughly before serving.
‘Flavour’. An essence of game or fish used as a flavouring
A roll of cooked meat or boned poultry with a covering of its own jelly.
To decorate. Garnishes may form part of a dish, or only contribute to its appearance.
Frozen, iced or glazed
To coat pastry, buns, etc., with a liquid, e.g. beaten egg, milk or a sugar solution
A method of adding flavour and juciness to meat and poultry by stitching short narrow strips of streaky bacon through meat or poultry flesh in vertical rows, using a larding needle.
Thickening. Egg yolks, cream and flour are generally used
A mixture of fruits or vegetables cut up into small dice.
To soften or become softened by soaking in a liquid.
A method of preserving, flavouring or tenderising meat. The meat is covered in a mixture of finely chopped flavouring vegetables with wine or vinegar and oil, covered and left to stand for an hour or two, or overnight, for the flavours to mingle and be absorbed.
Meats are sometimes marinated for a short time before grilling by sprinkling with seasoning and moistening with oil and lemon juice.
Round fillets or preparations formed into rounds
Round thin slices of meat braised or stewed
Whites of eggs whipped to look like snow
Mixed or variegated, applied to vegetables, salads, fruits and jellies when two or more kinds or colours are used
A thick paste used to bind dry ingredients. The usual proportions are 2 tablespoons fat, 2 tablespoons flour, 140 ml / 0.6 cups liquid.
To boil food until it is partly cooked
Small thin slices of meat used as a wrapper for stuffing
Very small fancy cakes often decorated with icing or crystalised fruits
A baby chicken
A rich stew
To grate or to shred
Indicates a dish that has been re-heated
Roasting, in the strictest sense of the word, is cooking by radiant heat in front of a hot fire. This method is practically obsolete and the term roast meat is now synonymous with baked meat.
Equal quantities of flour and butter stirred and cooked until ‘white’, ‘fawn’ or ‘brown’ and used for thickening soups, sauces or gravies.
A rich stew of game.
Flour mixed with salt and pepper in the proportion of 1 tablespoon flour, 1 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper.
Simmering liquid should show only a faint movement or ripple – it is not as intense as slow boiling
Fingers (or other shapes) of dry toast.
To cover with vinegar and spices
Cooking in a covered dish or other vessel in the steam that rises from boiling water. It is simple and economical and should be used whenever possible instead of boiling as it is an excellent way to retain vitamins and nutrients in a dish.
Stewing is cooking in a small quantity of liquid in a tightly covered cooking dish or saucepan at a temperature of about 180 degrees Fahrenheit. Stewing is very suitable for cooking cheaper cuts of meat as the long slow cooking makes the fibres tender.
Tammy. A cloth used for straining soups and sauces.
A fine cloth through which sauces or soups are forced in order to strain them.
outer skin of lemon, orange or lime grated finely