Food roasted or cooked in front of a fire on a spit or skewer
à la Frascati is a garnish for chicken or joints consisting of sauteed slices of foie gras, mushrooms, small truffles, asparagus tips and Duchesse potatoes shaped into crescents.
after the style of
Tiny peppercorn shaped pasta, lovely in soups.
The photo below shows Acini Di Pepe Pasta in the middle
Small pasta crescents or squares stuffed with filling, like small ravioli.
Small tomatoes and peppers simmered in oil
Also sometimes called pimento or Jamaican Pepper. Familiarily called Allspice because it has a taste of the combination of cloves, cinnamon, juniper berries, nutmeg and pepper. It is made from the green, unripe fruit of the Eugenia Pimenta, an evergreen tree grown extensively in Jamaica. The riper the fruit becomes, the less aromatic it is.
Use in poaching fish. Add one or two whole allspice to meat stews and fish chowders. Also used in pickles and sauces.
Delicious ground and just a pinch added to bring out the flavour in rich dried fruit cakes especially celebration and wedding cakes.
Alma Salad consists of grapefruit cut in quarters and slices of avocado neatly arranged on halved Cos lettuce. Vinaigrette dressing is served separately.
A garnish for chicken. Small onions and mushrooms braised without browning
Anelli pasta is pasta which is shaped in rings. Anellini is pasta shaped in tiny rings.
Anise seeds or aniseed are little liquorice flavoured seeds used in many Indian dishes as an aid to digestion. The digestive benefits of aniseed are also widely made use of in liqueurs and aperitifs. Anise seeds are the seeds of an umbelliferous plant grown in Tunisia, India and southern Europe. The seed was introduced to Britain in the 14th century and taken to America by pilgrims, where it was considered of great medicinal value by the Shakers.
Anise comes from the same family as cumin, dill and fennel.
Aniseed tea is known to relieve dry coughs and congested mucus. Aniseed tea is easily made by crushing a teaspoon of seeds and adding them to a cup of boiling water. After a few minutes the liquid is ready to be sieved and enjoyed.
Crush and add the seeds to sauces for fish, barbecue sauce, boiled chicken, pickled fish, and poultry dressings. Add to court bouillon for steamed cod, crab and shrimp. Delicious in devilled eggs, and add to cream cheese for a spread for canapés. Delicious in fruit and vegetable salads and also often added to pickled vegetables and spiced beetroot.
Try sprinkled on coffee cakes, breads and sweet rolls. Also can be used in home-made sweets, cakes, cookies and icing. Use about 1 teaspoon for 30 cookies.
The Hare Krishna Book of Vegetarian Cooking (Adiraja dasa 1989) contains a delightful recipe for Thandai, which is an anise seeds milk with raisins and pistachios. The recipe uses 2 tablespoons of anise seeds to just over 4 cups of liquid and also contains soaked raisins, cardamom seeds and honey. The drink is served garnished with mint.
A garnish for tournedos and noisettes. Thin slices of aubergines fried in oil: Rounds of onions fried; and chopped tomatoes lightly cooked in oil
Meat glaze or jelly
applied to fish – usually trout – cooked in a court bouillon. The fish takes a blue appearance.
Baked in the oven.
A topping of breadcrumbs, usually for food in a shallow ovenproof dish
Meat served in its own gravy.
A pan of hot water in which a saucepan is stood to keep its contents nearly boiling
The process of covering the breast of poultry or game with strips of streaky bacon, tied in position, to add flavour and juciness and stop the meat from drying out. The bacon is removed about 10 minutes before serving. The flesh can then then be basted to brown if desired.
Basil, seen as the symbol of love if found slipped into a card or book years ago, is probably best-known as a flavouring for tomatoes and pesto. The aromatic leaves and tender stems add a uniqueness to salads, egg dishes and macaroni and spaghetti dishes. Basil is an essential in Italian cooking.
Basil doesn’t dry as successfully as other herbs and is best used fresh for maximum flavour. Tear their leaves rather than chop them to preserve the flavour, and add to hot dishes just before the end of cooking time.
Basil relieves flatulence, is an aid to digestion and contains a mild sedative which helps one get a good night’s sleep if eaten in an evening sandwich before going to bed.
Rubbing basil leaves on the skin helps act as an insect repellent.
To pour hot fat over food, using a long-handled spoon, whilst baking or roasting
A garnish for fish of mushrooms, small glazed onions, fried eggs and shelled prawns.
Photo credit: Ilovebutter
A garnish for joints. Braised cabbage shaped into balls, whole small onions and chestnuts, and rashers of bacon
To add sufficient liquid such as eggs, milk or water, to make a mixture hold together.
To cover food with cold water and bring it to boiling point. The water should then be strained off.
A white stew, due to the white or pale-coloured flesh and sauce.
A garnish for noisettes consisting of pilaff, chopped tomatoes and rounds of fried onions
Cooking by immersion in boiling or simmering liquid for a given time.
A moulded ice cream often filled with a richer ice cream combined with nuts, fruit, etc.
Bouchees or Bouchées are small patties of pastry such as vol-au-vents. Literally ‘a mouthful’.
Fresh boiled meat.
Beef, veal or chicken stock
A garnish for joints. Seasoned chopped onions and diced potatoes roast in the meat tin to a light brown and cooked with a little stock at the same time as the meat.
Herb mixture, usually parsley, marjoram, thyme, rosemary and bay leaves tied in a bunch and wrapped in muslin, or store bought in a ‘tea bag’ style wrapping. Used for flavouring soups and stews during cooking time, and removed before serving.
Acooking method which combines roasting or frying and stewing, and which is excellent for cheaper cuts of meat
If you are short of buttermilk, take 1 pint / 560 ml / 2.2 US cups of milk and stir in 1 teaspoon of vinegar. Leave for one hour, then use in the usual way.
Fried or toasted bread cut into small fancy shapes or rounds, to serve Hors d’oeuvres or other savouries on
A garnish for fish. Oysters bearded and poached, and shelled prawns bound with Sauce Normande
Large round pasta tubes, generally used for stuffing, then covered with sauce and cooked in the same manner as lasagne.
Caraway seeds are said to relieve flatulence, colic and bronchitis. They’re an appetite stimulant and also known to increase milk flow in nursing mothers.
Caraway seeds are great rubbed over pork roasts and chops, and sprinkled over pork liver or kidney before serving.
Used in stews, marinades for beef, lamb, veal and pork, cheese sauces, cheese soufflés, Welsh rarebit, and soft cheeses for canapés.
Caraway seeds are also used in sliced pickles, gherkins and cucumbers in vinegar, and sprinkled on coleslaw sauerkraut, cabbage and boiled turnip, potato salad and salad dressings.
In sweet dishes Caraway seeds are baked in pound cake, spice cake, seed cakes, barm brack and cookies, and add a wonderful flavour to rye bread.
The Roman cookery writer Apicius recommended caraway with vegetables and fish. It is still common for people in some parts of Europe to chew a few caraway seeds before a meal, to prevent wind and indigestion. Caraway seeds can also be chewed as a natural breath freshener.
Delicious in spicy scrambled eggs.
A member of the ginger family, with a eucalyptus type scent and flavour, cardamom pods are not meant to be eaten whole, and should be removed from a dish before serving, or pushed to the side of the plate.
If a recipe says to use cardamom seeds, remove them from the pods and grind them with a mortar and pestle or with a rolling pin. Ground cardamom seeds are delicious in scrambled eggs, macaroni and cheese and custards. They can be added to soups as a seasoning on burgers, and are delicious in pickled herring.
Cardamom adds a delicious flavour to fruit punch, mulled wine, Danish pastries, coffee cake and sweet breads.
In India cardamom is considered one of the most prized spices after saffron. Green and white cardamom pods can be used for both sweet and savoury dishes, or to flavour rice. Black or brown pods are used only in savoury dishes.
Cardamom has medicinal qualities too. It relieves indigestion, and sweetens the breath when chewed. It can help stop vomiting, belching and acid regurgitation. Cardamom can also be used to treat colds, coughs and bronchitis.
Cayenne pepper or cayenne powder is made from dried red chilies and is sometimes also called red chilli powder.
It’s the spice that makes Indian food hot and is also used in tomato juice cocktails and salads. Try it in Welsh rarebit, devilled eggs and other egg dishes. Cayenne is delicious in cheese sauces and soufflés, boiled and barbecued fish, and as a garnish for canapés.
As a natural medicine, cayenne is a powerful circulatory stimulant, making it an effective treatment for the relief of cold hands and feet, chilblains and joint pain.
Cayenne is a great source of vitamins A and C, and all the B vitamins, making it good for the immune system, maintaining healthy skin and good memory.
Cayenne pepper contains a high concentration of capsaicin, which is recognised as having pain in reducing effects and the ability to prevent ulcers, along with anti-inflammatory properties.
It’s the capsaicin which gives one that feeling of euphoria when eating chilli, but it is also the element which causes stinging and itchiness if it gets anywhere near your eyes.
Be sure to wash your hands well after using cayenne, and just as you would be careful when chopping fresh chilies, never touch your eyes straight after handling this fiery little pepper.
Celery salt is a spicy blend of ground celery seed and table salt used for enhancing flavour in soups, gravies, casseroles, fish, poultry, meat sauces, pot roasts, scrambled eggs, mashed and creamed potatoes, salad dressing, dumplings for stew and savoury biscuit toppings.
When using celery salt there is no need to add any extra table salt.
A member of the parsley family, chervil has a fresh delicate flavour, and can be used lavishly in salads, and sprinkled on veal, pork, lamb, fish and shell fish. It is an ingredient in many sauces and is used as part of the fines herbes mix along with parsley, chives and tarragon. Finely chopped chervil is delicious in an omelette.
Chervil is a very easy herb to grow. It’s a fernlike plant which looks a bit like parsley and grows to height of about 1.5 feet / just under half a metre. It has pale green leaves and small white flowers, and is best suited to a well-drained, partially shady site.
Chervil was traditionally used in great quantities during Lent, both in cooking and as a skin cleanser. It was symbolic of new life and rebirth, and was thought to have blood cleansing properties.
Instructions for Chinese soup stock from Tricks of the Trade glossary in The Art of Chinese Cooking by the Benedictine Sisters of Peking.
Good soup stock is necessary in the preparation of Chinese food. Make it from bones, meat scraps, or scrapings from the bottom of the frying pan after cooking meat, and keep it on hand in the fridge. Or make it from bouillon cubes (very salty) or 1/2 teaspoon monosodium glutamate and 1 cup / 236 ml water.
Small Italian sausages
French cooking term à la clamart is a garnish for joints. Tartlets or bottoms of artichokes garnished with French style peas or a puree of fresh peas.
Instructions to clarify can include, butter, other fats or soups, all 3 of which are explained here:
To clarify butter-
Put butter in a small saucepan and warm over a very low heat until froth rises then sinks, solidified, to the bottom. Strain the clear liquid butter through a thin cloth and it is ready to use. This removes any impurities that would normally burn in cooking and appear as black spots.
To clarify other fats-
Bring to the boil with water, leave to cool, then remove fat and sediment.
To clarify soup-
When cold put 2 egg whites in a saucepan, beat lightly but not to a froth, add crushed egg shells and stock. Bring very slowly to the boil, stirring and beating continuously. All scum rises to the surface on the boil. Contine for 15 minutes without stirring. Remove from heat and stir soup into a basin through a jelly bag.
The word clove comes from the Latin clavius, meaning nail. Cloves can refer to a portion of the garlic bulb or to the the whole nail shaped flower buds of a tall aromatic evergreen tree native to South East Asia. They can be bought whole or ground, and clove oil has long been known for its ability to ease toothache when a little is rubbed near a sore tooth.
The custom of ‘chewing the clove’ is believed to have started in China, when addressing the emperor. This same custom was said to have been the practice of courtiers during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I.
Whole cloves are used to garnish and flavour baked ham and are also great for flavouring when making pickled foods such as pickled herring, and when pickling fruits and vegetables. They are great in whole baked onions, bread sauce and apple pie.
Cloves are difficult to grind at home so its easiest to keep ground cloves for baking with and for flavouring soups, sauces and dips. Ground cloves are good as a rub for baked ham, in apple-sauce cake and Christmas baking such as mince pie filling and Christmas cakes.
In craft-making, pomanders are made by studding oranges with cloves, which preserves the orange, making a pretty hanging ornament with a wonderful scent.
The specific gravity of coconut oil at 15° C. (59° F.) is ·925; solidifying point, 20·5° C. (69° F.). It is obtained from the fruit of Cocos nucifera, there being three qualities. The best, or Cochin, is grown on the Malabar coast. Ceylon is also a good quality, and both these varieties are prepared where cultivated. Copra is the common grade prepared in Europe from dried imported kernels. The oil is extracted by pressure and refined by heating with water. It is a soft, white, butterlike solid at ordinary temperatures. The fatty acids present are palmitic, oleic, myristic, and lauric. For edible purposes only selected nuts are employed. Most of the well known brands of vegetable butter consist simply of coconut oil, and it is extensively used in confectionery and biscuitmaking. In the past it was frequently used in the adulteration of butter.
Clear meat soup.
A garnish for joints. Puree of lentils and strips of lean bacon cooked with lentils.
Fresh coriander (cilantro) is used lavishly in Indian cooking as a flavour and a garnish. Fresh coriander leaves are best added to a dish at the last minute, as the flavour diminishes after cooking.
Ground coriander is an important ingredient in curry powder.
Coriander seeds can be roasted in a dry saucepan before crushing and cooking in curries, or grinding and storing in an airtight jar for later use.
Coriander seeds help to stimulate the digestive system and are helpful in the treatment of diarrhoea and cystitis, and infections of the urinary tract.
Coriander seeds are beneficial as an appetite stimulant and are also known to relieve flatulence, reduce digestive spasms, sooth anxiety and help insomnia. They are also known to be helpful in treating anorexia and allergies, skin rashes and acne.
Cutlets or chops.
A highly seasoned stock in which to cook fish
Mashed potatoes or minced poultry, meat or fish, bound with a sauce, shaped, then dipped in egg and breadcrumbs and fried or baked.
Large pieces of fried bread on which savoury snacks are served
Smal diced pieces of bread, fried and used as a garnish, mostly for soups
kitchen, or cookery
A kitchen essential in both ground and seed form, cumin is an important ingredient in curries. Delicious in chowders, lentil, bean and chicken soups, cumin goes well with lamb or beef, and is also good in breads and fruit pies.
Ready ground cumin should be purchased in small quantities, as it loses its flavour rapidly. You can easily grind your own, in a grinder, with a mortar and pestle, or simply crushing the seeds with the back of a spoon.
Minced meat starter shaped in a mould, the name of such a mould, also term used for small pastries.
A garnish for joints. Carrots and turnips cut into pieces, braised celery and potatoes browned in butter.
A stew of meat or poultry
A garnish for joints. Croquettes of potato Dauphine made in the shape of either balls, flat cakes or corks.
Devilled, or with hot seasoning
A garnish of shelled prawns bearded mussels and mushrooms for fish dishes.
Dill seeds have a refreshing flavour and go particularly well in cucumber dishes such as soups and salads, being particularly well known as the flavouring in dill pickled cucumbers.
Dill seeds give a warm aromatic flavour to soups, meat and fish sauces. Add to water when cooking fish. Dill seeds give a wonderful flavour to Russian Bortsch and add flavour to green beans, cauliflower and cabbage if added when cooking. Dill is the herb used in gravlax, the Swedish dish of pickled raw salmon.
Dill grows well in sunny spots, growing to a height of 2 – 3 feet.
In the Middle Ages, dill was used in magician’s spells and in witchcraft.
Dried mushrooms have an excellent flavour. To use them in Chinese stir fries, rinse well, cover them with lukewarm water, and let stand for 15 – 20 minutes until they are spongy. Squeeze them out and save the water. Take off stems as they are tougher and need longer cooking.
Light dishes served between courses
Forcemeat or stuffing
A mixture of finely chopped herbs
An open fruit tart, or a pastry or sponge case
A food product made from the liver of specially fattened duck or geese
To fold ingredients in means to gently stir in an ingredient without allowing the air to escape from the mixture. Cut downwards through the mixture with a spoon, run the spoon across the bottom of the mixing bowl, then up again so that part of the surface is folded under.
A savoury stuffing for fish, meat or poultry
A white stew of chicken or veal
A rapid method of cooking carried out in either shallow or deep fat.
There are several methods of frying:
- Shallow Frying – This is the cooking of food in just enough fat on the base of the frying pan. The amount of fat needed depends on the type of food being fried. Suitable for cooking fish, steak, eggs, pancakes, etc. Fresh fat is required for each different food.
- Dry Frying – This is the shallow frying of bacon, pork chops etc. which don’t require any extra fat.
- Deep Frying – This is the cooking of food (with or without batter), by complete immersion in hot fat. The heat immediately seals the outside of the food so that no flavour enters the fat. Drain fried food thoroughly before serving.
‘Flavour’. An essence of game or fish used as a flavouring
A roll of cooked meat or boned poultry with a covering of its own jelly.
To decorate. Garnishes may form part of a dish, or only contribute to its appearance.
Ginger can be bought fresh, dried, and ground, and preserved in syrup as stem ginger. Ground ginger can’t be substituted for fresh, because it gives a different flavour. Dried ginger, which is more pungent than fresh ginger, must be soaked before use. 1 teaspoon of dried ginger is equal to 1 tablespoon of chopped fresh ginger.
Ground ginger is delicious with carrots and sweet potatoes, sprinkled on pear halves for fruit salad, and in rice and bread puddings. Good in fruitcakes, fruit puddings, Christmas mincemeat for mince pies, cookies and gingerbread. Try a little ground ginger blended into toasted coconut.
Whole ginger can be added to canned pears, and pickled vegetables before processing to give a wonderful flavour.
Fresh ginger should be peeled, or lightly pared before use.
Ginger is well known as an aid to digestion, and is a remedy for nausea, particularly travel and morning sickness, and improves the circulation. Ginger tea helps clear a blocked nose at the first sign of a cold, and stimulates the liver to remove toxins from the bloodstream.
When I buy a big piece of root ginger I always use what I need that day, then freeze the rest. Ginger can be grated straight from frozen and used as needed. It is one of the best root spices for freezing successfully.
To make Ginger Tea
Ginger tea is easily made with a teaspoon of freshly grated ginger, the freshly squeezed juice of half a lemon, and a teaspoon of honey, topped up with boiling water.
Frozen, iced or glazed
To coat pastry, buns, etc., with a liquid, e.g. beaten egg, milk or a sugar solution
The ground allspice berry is also sometimes known as Jamaican Pepper and is so named because it resembles the flavour of cloves, nutmeg, juniper berries, pepper and cinnamon. Just a pinch needed, ground allspice is delicious in savoury stuffings, meat sauces, added to the vinegar for pickling eggs, in fruit compotes, fruit salads and cranberry sauce. A favourite spice with bakers, add a pinch to sweet mincemeat, cookies and fruit cakes. Delicious in German honey cake.
Ground cardamom is delicious added to soups, pickled herring, scrambled eggs, mac and cheese and even sprinkled over egg whites for meringues. It is an ingredient in baked beans and spiced beetroot. Ground cardamom can also be added to jellied fruit and vegetable salads. Try it with sweet potatoes or added to crushed fruit.
Ground cardamom is also delicious in a range of baked dishes such as Danish pastries, Dutch coffee cake and muffins.
Ground cinnamon comes from the aromatic bark of the cinnamon tree. Delicious on French toast, sprinkled on custard puddings, on fresh fruit and fruit salads, ground cinnamon is also good in chocolate cake, pies, cookies, cinnamon rolls and sprinkled on rice puddings.
You can make your own ground cinnamon by buying whole cinnamon sticks and dry roasting them, then grinding them in a mill or coffee grinder kept specially for grinding spices, in small amounts as you need them.
A garnish for tournedos and noisettes consisting of Potatoes Pont-Neuf and watercress.
A method of adding flavour and juciness to meat and poultry by stitching short narrow strips of streaky bacon through meat or poultry flesh in vertical rows, using a larding needle.
Thickening. Egg yolks, cream and flour are generally used
Mace is the fleshy skin that covers the nutmeg. Flavour is slightly reminiscent of nutmeg. Good with fish, oyster stew, lamb chops and in soups and sauces. Good in fruit salad and baked apples. Use sparingly , 1/8 teaspoon at most for 6 servings. Delicious in gingerbread and other baked cakes.
A mixture of fruits or vegetables cut up into small dice.
To soften or become softened by soaking in a liquid.
A method of preserving, flavouring or tenderising meat. The meat is covered in a mixture of finely chopped flavouring vegetables with wine or vinegar and oil, covered and left to stand for an hour or two, or overnight, for the flavours to mingle and be absorbed.
Meats are sometimes marinated for a short time before grilling by sprinkling with seasoning and moistening with oil and lemon juice.
Marjoram is a herb with an aromatic sweet flavour that permeates food being cooked. It has a strong fragrant balsamic odour and a warm bitterish aromatic taste.
Delicious in stuffings, soups and stews. Added to the cooking water, marjoram will improve the flavour of bland flavoured vegetables.
Round fillets or preparations formed into rounds
A garnish for grills. Cover with a trellis work of anchovy fillets and stoned olives. Serve anchovy butter separately.
Round thin slices of meat braised or stewed
Also known as M.S.G. , monosodium glutamate is extracted from wheat protein and sugar beets. It’s widely used in the food industry to heighten flavour in savoury foods and snacks. It is also used to preserve the natural flavour of frozen food.
Whites of eggs whipped to look like snow
Olive oil, also called salad oil and sweet oil, has a specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.) of ·914; solidifying-point, 3°-4° C. (37°-39° F.) It is obtained from the fruit of the thornless olive, Olea europcea sativa. The finest oil is expressed from hand-picked and peeled olives; a second grade is obtained from the whole olive, and low grades from the olive oil pulp left behind after pressing, extracted by pressure and the use of solvents. This ‘olive oil’ is misleadingly known as Pomace olive oil, giving no hint to the dangers and solvents used.
Olive oil varies greatly in colour; good oils may be anything between colourless and golden yellow. Some oils are tinged green owing to the presence of dissolved chlorophyll; these are generally low-class oils. The value of olive oil depends greatly upon its flavour, and this varies with the locality in which the olives are grown. The Tuscany fruits generally possess a more agreeable flavour than those grown in the Ligurian district. The rank, harsh taste of some of these oils disappears upon keeping some time. The fatty acids of olive oil consist principally of oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and arachidic acids.
On account of its high dietetic value, olive oil is adulterated enormously, the commonest adulterant being cotton-seed oil, which is frequently entirely substituted for it, as it is one of the cheapest edible oils available. Other oils used for this purpose are sesame, rape, poppy, arachis, and lard oils. The detection of some of these substitutes is not particularly difficult when they are present in considerable quantity, but the ingenuity of the adulterator is directed chiefly to the addition of a small quantity of a mixture of oils which have the effect of neutralizing each other, so that detection of the fraud becomes a matter of great delicacy which can only be successfully undertaken by an expert oil chemist. The following oils can be detected when present in large quantity, or substituted entirely for olive oil:-
Peanut oil reveals its presence by the bean-like odour and flavour which it possesses.
Lard oil yields the characteristic odour of lard when a portion of it is warmed.
Coconut oil in from 12-15 per cent added mixture causes the sample to solidify when placed in ice water.
Olive oil regulation and adulteration https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olive_oil_regulation_and_adulteration (accessed 31-03-2017)
The Modern Baker, Confectioner and Caterer Volume 2, Kirkland (1924 edition)
Mixed or variegated, applied to vegetables, salads, fruits and jellies when two or more kinds or colours are used
A thick paste used to bind dry ingredients. The usual proportions are 2 tablespoons fat, 2 tablespoons flour, 140 ml / 0.6 cups liquid.
To boil food until it is partly cooked
Small thin slices of meat used as a wrapper for stuffing
Very small fancy cakes often decorated with icing or crystalised fruits
A baby chicken
A rich stew
To grate or to shred
RAPESEED OR COLZA OIL
Rapeseed or colza oil has a specific gravity at 15° C. (59° F.) of ·914-·917; solidifying-point, -4° to -6° C. ( + 25 to 21 ° F.) It is obtained from the seeds of Brassica napus.
Indicates a dish that has been re-heated
Roasting, in the strictest sense of the word, is cooking by radiant heat in front of a hot fire. This method is practically obsolete and the term roast meat is now synonymous with baked meat.
What is Rosé Veal?
Veal is the name of the light-coloured meat from young calves. It is widely eaten on the Continent and is commonly found on restaurant menus in France, Belgium and Italy. Thousands of British and Irish calves are exported to the Continent each year, many for veal production. Scientific studies have shown that young calves are poor travellers and are prone to becoming ill, particularly in the weeks following their journey. Veal rearing is normally indoors, with no access to outdoors, and this is permitted by EU law. There are humane veal systems in Britain and Ireland where groups of calves are kept indoors with natural light, plenty of straw and room to move around freely. The veal from these more welfare-friendly systems is usually called ‘rosé veal’, and is believed by many to be a much better alternative to exporting young calves to the Continent.
Rose water has been traditionally used for centuries to flavour icings, turkish delights and lots more foods. It’s easier to buy now than it used to be, just check that what you are buying is a food grade rose water, as it is also popular for making skincare products.
A sweet fresh tasting herb which looks like a curved pine needle. Add a sprig to potatoes while roasting or boiling. Delicious with tomatoes, beetroot, and in cauliflower sauce.
Rosemary is easily grown in warm, dry, sunny borders. Rosemary blossoms contain much nectar and are popular with bees. The famous Narbonne honey takes its flavour from the rosemary which grows in great profusion in the Narbonne region of France.
Equal quantities of flour and butter stirred and cooked until ‘white’, ‘fawn’ or ‘brown’ and used for thickening soups, sauces or gravies.
A rich stew of game.
Flour mixed with salt and pepper in the proportion of 1 tablespoon flour, 1 teaspoon salt and 1/4 teaspoon pepper.
This oil is also called gingili oil and teel oil. Specific gravity at 15° C. (-59′ F.) ·923; solidifying-point, -5° C. (+23° F.). It is obtained from the seeds of Sesamum orientale and S. indicum. The cold-pressure oil is pale yellow and free from odour, with a pleasant taste. The fatty acids are chiefly oleic and linoleic.
In edible value it is equal to olive oil, of which it is a probable adulterant. Sesame oil when present in even small quantity can be recognized by the following test. Dissolve Baudouin’s, 1 gm. of cane sugar in 10 c.c. of hydrochloric acid of l ·2 Test Sesame for specific gravity. To this add 20 c.c. of the oil to be tested; Oil. shake thoroughly and allow to stand. If sesame oil is present the watery layer will become crimson (Baudouin’s test). The test is capable of indicating 2 per cent of sesame oil.
Simmering liquid should show only a faint movement or ripple – it is not as intense as slow boiling
Fingers (or other shapes) of dry toast.
To cover with vinegar and spices
Cooking in a covered dish or other vessel in the steam that rises from boiling water. It is simple and economical and should be used whenever possible instead of boiling as it is an excellent way to retain vitamins and nutrients in a dish.
Stewing is cooking in a small quantity of liquid in a tightly covered cooking dish or saucepan at a temperature of about 180 degrees Fahrenheit. Stewing is very suitable for cooking cheaper cuts of meat as the long slow cooking makes the fibres tender.
Tammy. A cloth used for straining soups and sauces.
A fine cloth through which sauces or soups are forced in order to strain them.
A garnish for tournedos and noisettes. Fried rounds of onions and chopped tomatoes.
Vitamin D is sometimes called the sunshine as the body will obtain this in the presence of sunshine.
It is necessary for the development of bones and teeth, and is an antidote to rickets.
Halibut and cod liver oils are the largest suppliers of Vitamin D, along with whole milk and butter in summertime.
Sardines, eels, herrings, mackerel and salmon, egg yolks and mushrooms are also good sources of Vitamin D. Fortified cereals and margarines are also a source.
A garnish for fish. Slices of lobster or langouste, thin slices of truffles.
All water should have chlorine and other metals filtered out of it, or use mineral water, and that includes cooking water for vegetables and stews. ‘Spring water’ can come from the mains supply, so be careful to check the source. This guide should also apply to restaurants or cafes where food is prepared – some restaurants do now use filtered water in all food and drink preparation.
outer skin of lemon, orange or lime grated finely
A garnish for escalopes. Ham, tongue, mushrooms and truffles cut into strips, simmered in butter with a little Madeira and mixed with a demi-glace sauce, mixed with a little tomato puree seasoned with tarragon.
Short wide tubes of pasta, sometimes also known as Cannaroni.